Thursday, May 21, 2020
The Internet is a unique place where all different nationalities, social groups and age groups with different values and characteristics, meet and interact. All spheres of media are being represented on the world wide web. Some of the relations are being mirrored from those present in real life, but the internet was never the same. As with real life, not everyone on the internet is equal and there are numerous differences between the users of this medium of mass communication. Even though the inequalities are still present on the internet, they are subtler than those existing within the offline world. Almost everyone has access, but how we benefit from it depends on our status, intelligence and willingness to explore. Audience members are becoming important and active producers, being given the tools, which bring them closer to professionals. Every internet user has equal access to an online education, but an intellectually privileged group will make a more productive use of it. This can be named as equality of opportunity. The argument cannot be defined into one side. Average people can keep in touch and interact with celebrities, which would never happen outside the internet. They obey the same rules and laws imposed by the services they use, yet are not equal, as famous people are more powerful, being in charge of a huge fan base. Another important issue is a marginalization of societies excluded from the internet outreach. The inequalities and equalities should also beShow MoreRelatedThe Internet : The World Wide Web873 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe internet, otherwise known as the world wide web, was discovered and popularized in 1969, along with a new way of thinking. The internet has become our TV, maps, clocks, radios, and our typewriters, revolutionizing the technology world. Nowadays, people can go onto their personal computers and find anything and everything they were looking for simply at a click of a button. Although some critique the internet for mak ing our population dumb, the internet is full of available and efficient resourcesRead MoreThe Internet And The World Wide Web1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesplace in society. The major one was the introduction of the internet and the World Wide Web. Around the 1950 s the first network called ARPANET was created and through research the internet was later on produced in the late 1970 s. Within two decades the internet went from being a new form of communication technology, to being, for most people a very important part of their culture and daily life. Many once held an optimism that the Internet would for example revolutionise work and office life, createRead MoreInternet And The World Wide Web990 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesInternet Privacy The term Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) are words that not only are familiar to people all over the globe but their technology is ubiquitous. Aside from the availability of the Internet, several spin-off technologies have been possible such as mobile Internet service via the mobile telephone, PDA or even Ã¢â¬Å"netbooksÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â those subnotebooks that are small-sized, low-cost and lightweight optimized for mobile Internet access and core computing functions. No doubt, it is difficultRead MoreInternet And The World Wide Web2058 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesuse the internet. The internet is a global communication network that allows all computers to exchange information. The internet has social benefits, it helps us in the classroom, it enhances our creativity, and it also has long term effects on our brain that actually help us. Of course, there are cons about the internet, but the bad parts are controllable. The internet changes the way we think for the better, and connects u s to people all around the world. The internet and the world wide web are veryRead MoreThe Internet And World Wide Web Essay2237 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCerf invented the Internet and just a few years later in 1990 Tim Berners-Lee changed the world forever by inventing the beautiful and ever useful World Wide Web. Most would use the terms Ã¢â¬ËinternetÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËWorld Wide WebÃ¢â¬â¢ interchangeably, however they are not the same at all. The Internet is an indescribably large network of networks while the World Wide Web is a refined way of gaining access to information on the internet. A really easy way to think about it is that the internet is connecting computersRead MoreWeb 2.0 : Internet, World Wide Web1988 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIntroduction With the introduction of the ultimate business disruptors: Internet, World Wide Web (Web) and communication technologies have revolutionized the way business operates by improving the ways people and organizations communicate and collaborate. The concept of Web 2.0 (Business 2.0) has earned a lot of prominence in recent years by positively influencing and changing the global landscape of businesses. Web 2.0 serves as a distinctive communications platform enabling and enhancing collaborationRead MoreThe Impact Of Internet On The World Wide Web1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSince its introduction, the World Wide Web has been an electronic hub for people to share thoughts anonymously with others all over the globe, however the internet has been used for activities deemed illicit. Governments have responded by limiting the access people have to certain parts of the web and monitoring peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s internet activities. There are people who believe that these governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ actions have violated civil rights. In order to protect their anonymity, people have turned to The OnionRead MoreThe Internet And The Development Of The World Wide Web1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshas changed how individuals use the Internet may access the World Wide Web. This presented paper highlights the history of the Internet and the development of the World Wide Web. It also describes the masterminds who created and developed the Web, enabled its popularization through the Web browser, and greatly improved its value by enabling web search. With the whole technology advances and changes, the differences between the first generation, Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 is also important to consider becauseRead MoreThe Impact Of Internet On The World Wide Web1767 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Globally, the estimate for Internet users in 2016 comes to around 46.1 percent, a three percent increase from 2015 (Ã¢â¬Å"Internet Users in the World,Ã¢â¬ Internet Live Stats). In a world where almost half of the population has Internet most people cannot imagine their lives without constant access to news sources. In this, different platforms that involve the sharing of information include: physical newspaper, online news sources, Facebook, and other social media platforms. The sharing of news storiesRead MoreThe Impact Of Internet On The World Wide Web2353 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesSince the invention of the internet via the World Wide Web (WWW) in the 1990s, numerous communication methods among individuals have improved. Friends, families, acquaintances have the capability to interact and connect at no charge disregarding of their locations as a result of the Computer-Mediated-Communication (CMC). With the improvement of the social media platforms such as Twitter, Myspace, Fac ebook, IM, Instagram and LinkedIn, youths have become hooked to online socialization. They have been
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The potential of crossbreeding indigenous chickens to improve rural food security and nutrition in southern Africa- a review Abstract The need to increase poultry production in southern Africa to meet the increasing protein requirement of the growing population is becoming a great concern. The quality of poultry meat and eggs produced in terms of taste, texture, flavour and leanness are of importance to consumers. Crossbreeding indigenous with exotic strains of chickens is one of the main factors that can improve food and nutrition security in southern Africa. In this paper, ways in which the quality and quantity of poultry meat and eggs can be improved for sustainable food and nutrition security in southern Africa, with emphasis on crossbreeding as a prospective food security (protein) stability technique are discussed. This paper is based on critical analysis of the literature and discusses and evaluates various crossbreeding methods of chickens that have been carried out in African countries. Comparative studies on the implementation, failures and successes of crossbreeding of chickens in African countries, such as Egypt, Botswana, Malawi and South Africa among others are reviewed. Crossbreeding, combined with selection, information dissemination, improved management and technology, is recommended for the geometric increase in poultry meat and egg production in southern Africa to improve food and nutrition security. KEYWORDS Crossbreeding, southernShow MoreRelatedThe Overlooked Area Of Poverty Essay1292 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesenormous challenge. Then, an inevitable question arises as to whether the persistence of poverty was well-defined. FAO (2015) also have noticed that extreme poverty mainly occurs in rural areas where the majority of poor people depend on agriculture. The condition of relying on agriculture means that primary source of food and income for those poor people come from agriculture that they have made. Unfortunately, agriculture was not prioritized at the goal and target levels. Agriculture was mentionedRead MoreAero, Bar One, Kit Kat Smarties906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe care of pre-school aged children on proper nutrition to ensure healthy development. Sustainability Ã¢â¬â With a lack of sustainable resources to supplement South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s growth, it is important to develop schemes which will be sustainable in the long-term without having to rely on scarce resources. Nestle has recognised that Food Security is an important quality in alleviating poverty and has addressed the issue by encouraging sustainability through food gardens, thus creating a means of income. InRead MoreThe Hunger Of Hunger And Malnutrition1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFood security is said to be attained when all people are able to access enough safe and nutritious food to meet their requirements for a healthy life. However, food security is challenged by various factors across production and consumption. Food production, trade, the environmental impact of agriculture, the threat of climate change, and the factors that affect food prices are all largely global in nature Ã¢â¬â there is no single solution that any one country can enact to ensure access to affordableRead MoreThe Dangers Of Hunger And Malnutrition1432 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPROBLEM: Food security is said to be attained when Ã¢â¬Å"all people are able to access enough safe and nutritious food to meet their requirements for a healthy lifeÃ¢â¬ . However, food security is challenged by various factors across production and consumption. Food production, trade, the environmental impact of agriculture, the threat of climate change, and the factors that affect food prices are all largely global in nature Ã¢â¬â there is no single solution that any one country can enact to ensure access toRead MoreEnvironmental Scarcity And Food Insecurity786 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA. According to the FAO estimation, there are 840 million undernourished people in the world, and 95% of them are from developing countries. B. Environmental scarcity and food insecurity are critical factors that intensify the issue of malnutrition among people in most developing countries. C. d. Evidence health issue: - protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) refers to a form of malnutrition where there is lack of calories and protein intake. There are two kinds of PEM: the nutritional edema andRead MoreMore Than Half of the Population of Pakistan Is Food Insecured Despite Agricultural Growth.751 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof Pakistan is food insecured despite agricultural growth. The food security of a country is the availability of food in that country, and the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s access to it.Ã It is often said, Ã¢â¬Å"Food insecurity anywhere, threatens peace everywhereÃ¢â¬ . The term food security reflects the desire to eliminate hunger and malnutrition. The World Food Summit in 1996 defined food security as, Ã¢â¬Å"when all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet the dietaryRead MoreTaking a Look at Bolivia1826 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestopic down by talking about BoliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s child mortality rates and healthcare system, and the problems with healthcare access, IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to talk about BoliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of access to food security and sanitation, and lastly IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to talk about the benefits that the popularity of the Bolivian crop quinoa has had on Bolivian nutrition. Bolivia history and poverty Since the end of the Napoleonic wars and the establishment of BoliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence from Spanish rule in 1825, Bolivia has endured a violentRead MoreMotivation Letter: Seeking a Master of Science Essay1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswater was sacred because it was very scarce. That girl was me I was 8 years old and It was the first time I understood natural resources are limited and that we do not have the same water and food accessibility and accessibility. A few long time afterwards I started to be interested in the environmental and food issues and I became a Greenpeace volunteer against genetically altered organisms. Then, I read a story about the expectations in agriculture by 2050 and I realized that the planet needed solutionsRead MoreThe Beef Market And Its Impact On Beef Production1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesproduction, whilst the CAP reforms have tended to reduce this support of beef production (). Owing to it, self-sufficiency accomplishes nearly 100% (European Commissi on, 2015a). Beef is one of the important foods providing multi-nutrition such as protein, vitamin and iron, though it is a sutured fat food, and cheap-priced beef can cause health inequlity on account of that consumers can easier access to and tend to purchase beef compared to much healthier productions such as vegetables or fruits which areRead MoreIndigenous Australians Experience A Much Lower Life Expectancy1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslong-term disability leading to a reduced quality of life. One of the most significant contributors to the ATSI populationÃ¢â¬â¢s health and wellbeing is their geographical location, in particular, looking at their access to health services and adequate nutrition. Access to Health Services/Facilities Access to health services and facilities is one of the largest influences on the health status of the ATSI population. Access to health services is concerned with allowing all individuals the opportunity to
What is Critical Thinking? Revisited What is Critical Thinking? The definition of critical thinking is Ã¢â¬Å"aiming to make wise decisions and come to correct conclusions, and not being sidetracked by temptation, emotion, greed, irrelevant considerations, stupidity, bias, or other similar things. Ã¢â¬ (Moore, 2012) Therefore, to think critically is to think about what one is going to say or do before saying or doing it. When thinking before taking any action one is basically thinking about thinking and weighing the consequences of their actions before reacting to any giving situation. We will write a custom essay sample on What Is Critical Thinking? Revisited or any similar topic only for you Order Now A perfect example of this would be that there is a couple who desperately wants to get married but after both losing their jobs they are living with the young manÃ¢â¬â¢s parents until they can get on their feet. The young woman secures employment and is now ready to go ahead with the wedding. The young man thinks about it and comes to the conclusion that they should wait until not only he gets employed but until they are in a home of their own and then go to City Hall to get married since a wedding takes money that they do not have. This was thinking critically because if they were to spend her wages on a wedding it is quite possible that they would still be living with his parents and not have any money saved because she at the time was the only person with an income. This would have been a consequence of not using critical thinking. I do not believe that my answer to this question this time around is much different than when I answered it in the earlier part of this course. Although my answer seems similar, my new knowledge on the subject is not. I came into this course not knowing much at all about the subject. I never thought about thinking, unsound or valid arguments, deductive reasoning or any of the things that I now have learned from taking this course. Now I am paying more attention to rhetorical devices, having valid arguments, unstated premises and everything that goes along with these things. Works Cited Moore B. N. (2012). In Critical Thinking. New York: McGraw-Hill. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â What is Critical Thinking Revisited 1 How to cite What Is Critical Thinking? Revisited, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Table of Contents Introduction The Two Principles Conclusion Works Cited Introduction In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls deliberates on how applying logic in justice principles would solve common problems like societal structures, assigning right duties to individuals and distribution of economic and social advantages to all people in society among other pertinent issues. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on John RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ A Theory of Justice specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead of concerning himself with the elusive notion of restoring justice in any unjust society, RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ elementary duty in this book is to come up with principles of justice that would be universally applicable and used in shaping an ideal society. To some extent, Rawls borrows from Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s principles of ethics that campaign for principles of nature where an individual has to do to others as he or she would expect them to do to him or her. According to Rawls, principles that would govern a society are principles chosen by individuals if they were in an Ã¢â¬Ëoriginal positionÃ¢â¬â¢ and they acted rationally having mutual neutrality. To expound these principles of justice, Rawls came up with two principles of justice viz. Ã¢â¬ËPrinciple of Equal LibertyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Difference Principle.Ã¢â¬ These principles can be understood better by looking into what Rawls calls Ã¢â¬Å"Original PositionÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Å"Veil of Ignorance.Ã¢â¬ If people acted or chose situations that are Ã¢â¬ËidealÃ¢â¬â¢ for them with neutrality, then justice would become fair and this would overcome the infringements presented by theory of utilitarianism. Rawls provides a strong argument for these principles and these principles are good justice principles. The Two Principles Before putting forward his two principles of justice, Rawls begins with expounding a hypothetical Ã¢â¬Ëoriginal positionÃ¢â¬ â¢ that each individual should adopt. At this position, the involved parties would determine precepts of justice from behind a Ã¢â¬Ëveil of ignorance.Ã¢â¬ The Ã¢â¬ËveilÃ¢â¬â¢ mentioned here would fundamentally subterfuge people from recognizing any facts about themselves hence eliminate the possibility of littering justice with personal issues. Rawls says, Ã¢â¬Å"no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status, nor does anyone know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence, strength, and the like. Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I shall even assume that the parties do not know their conceptions of the good or their special psychological propensities. The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignoranceÃ¢â¬ ((Perry, Bratman Fisher 580). Therefore, in accordance with this argument, there would be no class, talents or any social distinction in the society. Rawls approaches this issue from hypothetical Ã¢â¬Ëoriginal pointÃ¢â¬â¢ to eliminate personal issues that litter justice principles. For long, people have made decisions and passed justice based on personal likes and dislikes without considering the other party. Rawls uses this Ã¢â¬Ëoriginal position, to attain a neutral ground where individuals would pass judgment that they would wish to be passed on them if they were in the shoes of their subjects. This is where Rawls agrees with Kantian Ethics that are rooted on natural law of doing to others, as one would wish to be done to him or her. In other words, it is a case of one giving what he or she would expect to get back. RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ original position eliminates personal interests and the eventual justice would be fair to all people in society. If justice would be decided from the Ã¢â¬Ëoriginal positionÃ¢â¬â¢, it would be fair for all. Rawls assumes that partie s in the Ã¢â¬Ëoriginal positionÃ¢â¬â¢ would agree to his two principles of justice because of the following reasons: firstly, given the fact that these parties do not know their position in society neither do they know their class, there is a probability that they would end up in any class or get any natural asset. Therefore, due to this uncertainty, these parties would try their best to ensure that the justice passed favors all people regardless of their classes. In any case, an individual in the Ã¢â¬Ëoriginal positionÃ¢â¬â¢ would be passing judgment for him/herself. Considering this, all individuals would pass judgments that favor themselves to ensure that if they find themselves in any class, they would be comfortable in it. Therefore, in a bid to create an ideal situation that would favor the maker of the situation, the overall justice would be fair to all. It is natural that people want the best things for themselves; therefore, they would come up with structures that are best for themselves and because they do not know where they would be in future, the overall judgment would be Ã¢â¬ËbestÃ¢â¬â¢ for them and Ã¢â¬ËfairÃ¢â¬â¢ to everyone else. Moreover, Rawls thinks that people in the Ã¢â¬Ëoriginal positionÃ¢â¬â¢ would agree to his two principles because these principles gives a standard way out in distributing natural resources, economic and social advantages in societies. However, what are these principles?Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on John RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ A Theory of Justice specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As aforementioned, Rawls puts forward two principles of justice viz. Ã¢â¬ËPrinciple of Equal LibertyÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËDifference Principle.Ã¢â¬â¢ The principle of equal liberty states that, Ã¢â¬Å"each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive scheme of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar scheme of liberties for othersÃ¢â¬ ( Rawls 301). On the other side the Difference Principle states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that; they are to be of the greatest benefit to the least-advantaged members of society, and offices and positions must be open to everyone under conditions of fair equality of opportunityÃ¢â¬ (Rawls 303). The principle of equal liberty is egalitarian for it ensures that every person gets equal liberties. In this case, justice would prevail and societies would be structured in a way that would allow mutual understanding. This first principle is absolute in its nature, and to some extent, it echoes libertarianism whereby people will have right to speech. However, Rawls admits that on its own, this first principle may not address all issues facing the society. Therefore, he throws in the second principle and he is quick to point out that the second principle is important but for it to be realized, the first principle has to be fully applied. The second principle does not substitute the first; on contrary, it complements it by adding some specifications that the first principle may not address. The second principle as aforementioned is the Difference Principle. Rawls divides this principle into two clauses addressing the same issue of social inequalities. The first clause calls for distribution economic and social disparities in a way that, Ã¢â¬Å"they are to be of the greatest benefit to the least-advantaged members of societyÃ¢â¬ (Rawls 303). This clause differs from the first principle by eliminating the egalitarian bit of it. It allows some people to have benefits over others; however, these benefits should be of great help to the less fortunate in society. For instance, talented people in society may have benefits over others; however, they should use these talents appropriately and channel their results back into society for the help of least talented in society. In principle, even though they have their talents, they s hould not use them for their own good.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second part of difference principle states that economic and social disparities should be distributed in a way that, Ã¢â¬Å"offices and positions must be open to everyone under conditions of fair equality of opportunityÃ¢â¬ (Perry, Bratman Fisher 578). This part is egalitarian just like the first principle for it calls for equality at all levels. Rawls explains these principles well by putting sense into them in a way that would compel someone to accept them. For instance, considering difference principle, Rawls provides a sustainable social structure that would eliminate injustice. The difference principle calls for formulation of projects that would allow some people to have more benefits in society than others. Some people would have more incomes, status and so forth over others. For instance, managers in blue chip companies would earn high salaries than street cleaners. This is logical and acceptable. People with talents in society would be allowed to pursue their tale nts and have higher social status than others. Rawls is fine with all these possibilities. Nevertheless, such disparities would only be allowed under certain controlled conditions that would allow better lives for the least advantaged people in society. Rawls puts forward two conditions; one, these disparities would be allowed if their outcome have direct or indirect positive effects in empowering the least advantaged in society. For instance, if paying a blue chip company manager millions of dollars would benefit the least advantaged, then so be it. As long as the outcome of such disparity is improving livelihood of the poor and less fortunate in society, then it is allowed. Secondly, Rawls indicates that as long as the procedure of accessing high posts in society is free and fair, void of irrelevant criteria and discrimination, then it is all right. Moreover, the difference principle addresses other ethical theories like the socialist idea, which calls for distribution of respons ibilities and benefits based on ability and need respectively. In essence, the least advantaged people in society have more needs whilst those greatly advantaged have the highest responsibilities. This boils down to merit where skills are rewarded and at this point, RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ principles become good principles of justice. The society has for long promoted courses that would benefit only those who are well off in society leaving the least disadvantaged to groan under poverty and misery. However, Rawls first clause of the second principle of justice eliminates this problem. People should only change economic and social institutions if only they will benefit all people in society not the well off alone. For instance, there would be a proposal that seeks to allow erection of a nuclear plant in a family neighborhood whereby, the families around the nuclear plant would not benefit; however, the plant would provide well-paying jobs to professionals who are already well off. Under, Raw lsÃ¢â¬â¢ principles, this nuclear plant would not come to be; however, in contemporary society, this plant would be introduced regardless of the plight of the neighboring families. This is unfair; it is injustice. In the wake of these facts, RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ principles of justice stand out as a better way out of the quagmire that societies have plunged into. RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ principles are even better than utilitarianism. According to Perry, Bratman, and Fisher, utilitarianism states that as long as actions promote felicity, they qualify as Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ actions (589). However, Rawls offers a better approach in addressing pleasure and happiness. Utilitarianism has many infringements that violate basic human rights; however, RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ principles allows for equality and at the same time allow individuals to do what they love doing hence become happy. The difference between the two is what takes precedence over what. While in utilitarianism, the quest to derive felicity and plea sure takes precedence over human rights, RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ principles are the exact opposite. Equality should prevail and this is why Rawls starts by taking people back to the Ã¢â¬Ëoriginal position.Ã¢â¬â¢ After ensuring that equality prevails, Rawls then incorporates the issue of deriving happiness. In essence, if what an individual is doing does not benefit other people in society, it is wrong whether it brings happiness or not. RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ principles are good because if societies are structured according to his suggestions, then at least everyone will be happy in society because justice would be fair for every body. Otherwise, without adopting these principles, societies would continue to suffer social injustices because social classes and positions have allowed people to pass biased judgments that benefit them alone. Conclusion Rawls comes out clearly in his principles of Justice. He starts by referring people to make judgments from an Ã¢â¬Ëoriginal positionÃ¢â¬â¢ covered with a Ã¢â¬Ëveil of ignorance.Ã¢â¬â¢ This veil covers people from acknowledging their interests, status, or positions in society. At this point, people would make judgments and decisions that are fair to everyone because these decision makers do not know where they would belong in future; therefore, they would pass judgments that are Ã¢â¬ËbestÃ¢â¬â¢ for themselves thus making the judgments fair to everyone. Rawls then gives his two principles. The first one is an egalitarian principle calling for equal distribution of liberties to all people in society. This provision eliminates many injustices while the second principle furnishes what the first does not address adequately. This second principle allows classes in society only if the outcome of such classes would be for the benefit of the least advantaged in society. Rawls provides a strong argument for these principles and these principles are good justice principles because they address pertinent issues of injustice in s ociety. They are better than utilitarianism for their basic objective is upholding human rights as opposed to utilitarianismÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness. Works Cited Perry, John, Bratman, Michael, Fisher, Martin. Ã¢â¬Å"Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings.Ã¢â¬ New York; Oxford University Press, 2006. Rawls, John. Ã¢â¬Å"A Theory of Justice.Ã¢â¬ Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971. This essay on John RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ A Theory of Justice was written and submitted by user Daisy Yates to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Colorado River Essays - Imperial Valley, Colorado River, Free Essays Colorado River Geography Colorado River Geographers can tell you that the one thing that most rivers and their adjacent flood plains in the world have in common is that they have rich histories associated with human settlement and development. This especially true in arid regions which are very dependent upon water. Two excellent examples are the Nile and the Tigris-Euphrates rivers which show use the relationship between rivers and concentrations of people. However, the Colorado River is not such a good example along most segments of its course. There is no continuous transportation system that parallels the rivers course, and settlements are clustered. The rugged terrain and entrenched river channels are the major reasons for sparse human settlement. We ask ourselves, did the Colorado River help or hinder settlement in the Western United States? As settlers began to move westward, the Southwest was considered to be a place to avoid. Few considered it a place to traverse, to spread Christianity, and a possible source of furs or mineral wealth. Finding a reliable or accessible water source, and timber for building was difficult to find. There was a lack of land that could be irrigated easily. By the turn of the century, most present day cities and towns were already established. Trails, roads, and railroads linked several areas with neighboring regions. Although the Colorado River drainage system was still not integrated. In the mid 1900s many dams had been built to harness and use the water. A new phase of development occurred at the end of the second World War. There was a large emphasis on recreation, tourism, and environmental preservation. The terrain of the Colorado River is very unique. It consists of Wet Upper Slopes, Irregular Transition Plains and Hills, Deep Canyonlands, and the Dry Lower Plains. Wet Upper Slopes: Consist of numerous streams that feed into the Colorado River from stream cut canyons, small flat floored valleys often occupied by alpine lakes and adjacent steep walled mountain peaks. These areas are heavily forested and contain swiftly flowing streams, rapids, and waterfalls. These areas have little commercial value except as watershed, wildlife habitat, forest land, and destinations for hikers, fishermen, and mountaineers. Irregular Transition Plains and Hills: These areas are favorable for traditional economic development. It consists of river valleys with adequate flat land to support farms and ranches. Due to the rolling hills, low plateaus, and mountain slopes, livestock grazing is common. The largest cities of the whole drainage system are found here. Deep Canyonlands: Definitely the most spectacular and least developed area along the Colorado River. These deep gorges are primarily covered by horizontal layers of sedimentary rocks, of which sand stone is the most abundant. The Grand Canyon does not only display spectacular beauty, but numerous other features such as mesas, buttes, spires, balancing rocks, natural arches and bridges, sand dunes, massive sandstone walls, and pottholed cliffs. Dry Lower Plains: These consist of the arid desert areas. These areas encounter hot summers and mild winters. Early settlement was limited because most of the land next to the river was not well suited for irrigation agriculture. The area is characterized by limited flat land, poor soils, poor drainage, and too hot of conditions for most traditional crops. The Colorado River was first navigated by John Wesley Powell, in his 1869 exploration through the Marble and Grand Canyons. The Colorado River begins high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The water begins from melting snow and rain, and is then supplemented by the Gunnison, Green, San Juan, Little Colorado, Virgin, and Gila Rivers. Before any dams were built, the Colorado River carried 380,000 million tons of silt to the Sea of Cortez. Along its path, it carves out the Marble, Grand, Black, Boulder, and Topok Canyons. The Grand Canyon being the most popular, which is visited by numerous tourists every year, plays a large role in western tourism. The Grand Canyon is in fact one of the Worlds Seven Wonders. The Colorado Basin covers 240,000 square miles of drainage area. At certain points along the river, it turns into a raging, muddy, rapid covered mass of water. Unlike other rivers, the Colorado River doesnt meet the ocean in a grand way, but rather in a small trickle. Almost all of the water that passes down the river is spoken for. It passes through seven Western States, travels 1,700 miles, and descends more than 14,000 feet before emptying into the sea, with more silt and salinity than any river in North America. A river not used for commerce, or any degree of navigation other than recreational, and virtually ignored until
Monday, March 2, 2020
An Overview of Historic Preservation Historic preservation is a movement in planning designed to conserve old buildings and areas in an effort to tie a places history to its population and culture. It is also an essential component to green building in that it reuses structures that are already present as opposed to new construction. Additionally, historic preservation can help a city become more competitive because historic, unique buildings give areas more prominence when compared to the homogeneous skyscrapers that dominate in many large cities. It is important to note, however, that historic preservation is a term used only in the United States and it did not gain prominence until the 1960s when it started in response to urban renewal, an earlier failed planning movement. Other English-speaking countries often use the term heritage conservation to refer to the same process while architectural conservation refers just to the preservation of buildings. Other terms include urban conservation, landscape preservation, built environment/heritage conservation, and immovable object conservation. History of Historic Preservation Although the actual term historic preservation did not become popular until the 1960s, the act of conserving historic places dates back to the mid-17th Century. At this time, wealthy Englishmen consistently collected historic artifacts, leading to their preservation. It was not until 1913 though that historic preservation became a part of English law. In that year the Ancient Monuments Act in the United Kingdom officially preserved structures there with historical interest. In 1944, preservation became a major component to planning in the U.K. when the Town and Country Planning Act put the preservation of historic places into the forefront of laws and approval of planning projects. In 1990, another Town and Country Planning Act passed and the protection of public buildings grew even more. In the United States, the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities was founded in 1889 in Richmond, Virginia as the first state historic preservation group in the country. From there, other areas followed suit and in 1930, Simons and Lapham, an architectural firm, helped created the first historic preservation law in South Carolina. Shortly thereafter, the French Quarter in New Orleans, Louisiana became the second area to fall under a new preservation law. The preservation of historic places then hit the national scene in 1949 when the U.S. National Trust for Historic Preservation developed a specific set of goals for preservation. The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement claimed that it aimed to protect structures providing leadership and education and that it also wanted to save AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s diverse historic places and revitalize [its] communities. Historic preservation then became a part of the curriculum at many universities in the U.S. and the world that taught urban planning. In the U.S., historic preservation became a large component in the planning profession in the 1960s after urban renewal threatened to destroy many of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s most historic places in major cities like Boston, Massachusetts and Baltimore, Maryland. Divisions of Historic Places Within planning, there are three main divisions of historic areas. The first and most important to planning is the historic district. In the United States, this is a group of buildings, properties, and/or other sites that are said to be historically significant and in need of protection/redevelopment. Outside of the U.S., similar places are often called conservation areas. This is a common term used in Canada, India, New Zealand, and the U.K. to designate places with historical natural features, cultural areas, or animals to be protected. Historic parks are the second division of areas within historic preservation while historic landscapes are the third. Significance in Planning Historic preservation is important to urban planning because it represents an effort to conserve old building styles. In doing so, it forces planners to identify and work around the protected places. This usually means the insides of buildings are renovated for prestigious office, retail, or residential space, which can result in a competitive downtown as rents are normally high in these areas because they are popular gathering places. In addition, historic preservation also results in a less homogenized downtown landscape. In many new cities, the skyline is dominated by glass, steel, and concrete skyscrapers. Older cities that have had their historic buildings preserved may have these but they also have interesting older buildings. For example in Boston, there are new skyscrapers, but the renovated Faneuil Hall shows the importance of the areas history and also serves as a meeting place for the citys population. This represents a good combination of the new and old but also shows one of the main goals of historic preservation. Criticisms of Historic Preservation Like many movements in planning and urban design, historic preservation has had a number of criticisms. The largest is the cost. While it might not be more expensive to renovate old buildings instead of building new, the historic buildings are often smaller and therefore cannot accommodate as many businesses or people. This raises rents and forces lower income uses to relocate. In addition, critics say the popular style of newer high rise buildings can cause the smaller, old buildings to become dwarfed and undesirable. Despite these criticisms, historic preservation has been an important part of urban planning. As such, many cities around the world today were able to retain their historic buildings so future generations can see what cities may have looked like in the past and recognize that times culture through its architecture.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Intensive Care Competencies - Research Paper Example A qualified and effective nurse understands all the dynamics of patient advocacy (Kassirer, 2009). In the intensive care unit, a nurse becomes the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s advocate. If the patient is paralyzed, unconscious, asleep or in pain, the nurse becomes the advocate for his or her rights and integrity (Lundy & Janes, 2009). The patient must always be ventilated and properly positioned (Lipe, 2003). This takes a lot of courtesy and professionalism from a nurse. If the nurse is working in a hostile environment where the services are limited and resources are scarce, the integrity of service delivery may be compromised (Lipe, 2003). Therefore, the nurse has to use all the necessary means to shield the patient from embarrassment or unwanted happenings during the service delivery. Critical reasoning must always be tempered with clinical reasoning in the nursing profession (Brunt, 2008).The willingness and ability to take responsibility is one of the most prominent competencies during the i ntensive care (Joint Commission Resources, 2004). It is always easy for nurses to blame people and other players when things go wrong. Nurses can take advantage of their patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ ignorance and fail to take the blame upon themselves when things go wrong (Kassirer, 2009). This leaves patients more confused. A professional nurse working in the intensive care unit should be able to take responsibility and blame upon both the team and the patient if need be. This also involves recognizing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s shortcomings.... Therefore, the nurse has to use all the necessary means to shield the patient from embarrassment or unwanted happenings during the service delivery. Critical reasoning must always be tempered with clinical reasoning in the nursing profession (Brunt, 2008). The willingness and ability to take responsibility is one of the most prominent competencies during the intensive care (Joint Commission Resources, 2004). It is always easy for nurses to blame people and other players when things go wrong. Nurses can take advantage of their patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ ignorance and fail to take the blame upon themselves when things go wrong (Kassirer, 2009). This leaves patients more confused. A professional nurse working in the intensive care unit should be able to take responsibility and blame upon both the team and the patient if need be (Elliott, 2006). This also involves recognizing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s shortcomings (Lipe, 2003). During critical thinking, analysis and evaluation are used before a conclusion is r eached (Joint Commission Resources, 2004). Some of the analyses and observations end up pointing at some professional omissions and laxity on the side of nurses in the intensive care unit (Brunt, 2008). This can be solved by admitting these omissions. The ability to think fast enough is also extremely necessary (Elliott, 2006). During clinical reasoning, trial and error decisions can be made in genuine faith. A competent nurse should be able to explain such decisions when called upon (Kassirer, 2009). Sometimes, some of the team members can run out of the ideas while carrying out some sensitive procedures. The ability of a nurse to observe and address the individual needs of team members is critical. Most of these