Monday, August 24, 2020

Portfolio Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Portfolio Management - Essay Example The systems then again requests attention to the economic situations and stock volatilities to choose the venture methodologies so as to augment the profits. Since chance in speculations is unavoidable, the administration of portfolio assists with relieving the hazard with proper venture procedures. The different speculation procedures for development of a portfolio are given underneath. Broadening The interest in resources is portrayed by hazard and return. These are two sorts of hazard, in particular the methodical hazard and the unsystematic hazard. The deliberate dangers are the dangers that show up because of vulnerabilities in the economic situation. The unsystematic dangers are because of the vacillation of the exhibition of individual organizations. The expansion system is utilized in portfolio interests so as to lessen the unsystematic hazard. Through the arrangement of a portfolio containing ventures on a wide scope of benefits decrease the danger of the general portfolio b ecause of positive and negative impacts of the individual resources. The expansion procedure assists with acquiring ideal return through broadening of hazard. ... stematic advertise hazard couldn't be alleviated, the utilization of non-associating resources assists with diminishing the general danger of the portfolio with the streamlining of profits. Jump Puts and other Option The utilization of Put choices and the Long Term Equity Anticipation protections are elective speculation techniques received by the speculator. There might be situations where the profits of the portfolio have expanded in brief timeframe and is probably going to fall because of market instability. Be that as it may, there might be expectations of future ascent of profits. The target behind selection of this methodology is to make sure about the more significant yields acquired and simultaneously not pull back from the situation of venture. The utilization of Put alternatives empowers the financial specialist to go into an agreement of selling the security at a specific cost on a future date. In this manner the financial specialist could clutch their ventures without per mitting the additions accomplished to be drained. The LEAP Puts are utilized as long haul venture techniques with a similar target. Stop Losses This is another venture procedure so as to shield the portfolio from the danger of fall in the estimation of offers. The utilization of stop misfortunes implies that the stock would be naturally sold if the cost of the offer tumbles to the pre-fixed estimation of stop misfortunes. The utilization of stop misfortunes sells the low performing shares and gives a motivation to the financial specialist to interest in shares that could supplant the sold offer in the portfolio. Profits The utilization of data on profit installments by the organizations structure some portion of the venture techniques. Particularly in instances of market downturn, the data on profit is utilized by chance opposed financial specialists and an essential to support their portfolio. The profits paid by the organizations are deciphered by the financial specialists as poin ters of solid

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Developing effective communication in Health Social Care Free Essays

Unit 1: Developing successful correspondence in Health social consideration Assignment 1 introduction: Correspondence is at the core of any relationship, be it familial, business, sentimental, or well disposed. While there have been huge advances by they way we comprehend non-verbal communication and different types of correspondence, verbal correspondence keeps on being the most significant part of our cooperation with others. We will compose a custom article test on Creating compelling correspondence in Health Social Care or on the other hand any comparable point just for you Request Now It’s critical to comprehend both the advantages and weaknesses of this most essential correspondence. Coordinated correspondence has a significant impact in nearly everyone’s life. This kind of correspondence happens regularly in eye to eye discussions and in phone discourse abilities. Discussion comprises of discussion about different issues of basic enthusiasm to both of the individuals in question. Discussions, not at all like numerous different sorts of correspondence are generally not arranged or practiced in advance. Gathering correspondence alludes to the correspondence between a gathering of individuals and another gathering of individuals or inside the gathering itself. A gathering is ordinarily considered as an assortment of individuals that number at least 3. This sort of correspondence is exceptionally useful when you have to get over a similar message to more than 1 individual. For instance in the event that you are a director who is reporting an adjustment in hours for workers shifts, at that point you would assemble everybody. That way it is faster and spares you time. Likewise it is useful when you need to talk about something with your colleagues or business. Gathering discussions and conversations are well known. Formal correspondence is the sort of correspondence utilized for significant subjects, typically in the fields of business, government, discretionary issues, logical issues, addresses by educators, specific kinds of talks at universities, or in classes. It is discourse which is intended to intrigue and to give weight and position to the individual talking and to the subject being spoken about. It is obliging discourse, and uses considerate language, regardless of whether in verbal or composed structure. Models would be the president’s debut discourse, letters between envoys or delegates, a location by a school president to the school, the introduction of a logical paper or hypothesis at a discussion or course. Indeed, even in composed structure, a letter of acquiescence from a post one hold. Formal correspondence accept, typically, a vertical connection between individuals in that circumstance. Somebody is the individual above, in power, and somebody is the individual underneath, ward somewhat on that individual, in that circumstance. Casual correspondence is more on a companion level. It is ordinary discourse, the sort of discourse where you don’t need to stress a lot over how you love seat something, since you and the other individual know each other all around ok not to take things wrongly. It might be worried about significant issues, however it isn't on a legitimate level. It might be two individuals who appreciate argumentation grinding away about some particular point, or companions arranging a trip, or cooperating on a task and talking through what and how to do it. Types of correspondence ‘Verbal’ implies ‘spoken’. In this way, verbal correspondence is the messages you send with words. It’s what you really state. Non-verbal correspondence is the messages you send with your body. A few people consider it your non-verbal communication. For instance: Facial articulations †grinning, scowling, causing a commotion, eye to eye connection Gestures †waving your hand, pointing your finger, folding your arms Posture †the manner in which you stand or sit. Contact †being caring you would put you hand on ones shoulder to give you give it a second thought. Quietness †could be an indication of outrage, upset, apprehension and so forth. Intelligent listening †gesturing your head to show you comprehend, eye to eye connection. Non-verbal correspondence additionally incorporates the tone and pitch of your voice. Along these lines, verbal correspondence is the words. Be that as it may, non-verbal correspondence is the means by which you state the words. Mechanical correspondence †Text informing, E-mail, Msn, and so on. Mechanical guides †People who are hard of hearing visually impaired utilize a wide range of techniques for correspondence. The technique picked will rely on the measure of sight and hearing the individual has the reason for hard of hearing visual deficiency and to what extent the individual has had a tangible debilitation. †Braille is for somebody unfit to see message alright to understand it, braille can be utilized to mark articles and offer access to books. Articles structured particularly for visually impaired and hard of hearing visually impaired individuals may as of now be named in braille. †British gesture based communication is a visual methods for imparting utilizing motions, outward appearance, and non-verbal communication. Gesture based communication is utilized chiefly by individuals who are Deaf or have hearing debilitations. Inside Britain the most widely recognized type of Sign Language is called British Sign Language. English Sign Language has its own syntactic structure and punctuation, as a language it isn't reliant nor is it firmly identified with communicated in English. English Sign Language is the favored language of between 50,000 †70,000 individuals inside the UK. †Communication images could be anything from â€Å"ladies toilets sign† to â€Å"road signs†. Here are a few pictures of correspondence images. Step by step instructions to refer to Developing successful correspondence in Health Social Care, Papers

Monday, July 20, 2020

Getting Started With Guided Sleep Meditation

Getting Started With Guided Sleep Meditation Meditation Print Getting Started With Guided Sleep Meditation By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder and 7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety. Learn about our editorial policy Arlin Cuncic Updated on July 30, 2019 Getty / Olix Wirtinger/Corbis/VCG More in Self-Improvement Meditation Happiness Stress Management Spirituality Holistic Health Inspiration Brain Health Technology Relationships View All In This Article Table of Contents Expand Benefits Steps Research Sleep Hygiene View All Back To Top Guided sleep meditation is a method for helping you to let go of worrying thoughts and relax your body before bed. Like other forms of meditation, this practice involves moving your focus away from your mind to sensations in your body. Regular practice of guided sleep meditation has been shown to improve sleep, meaning that this method is an important strategy that you can use to help reduce problems falling and staying asleep. According to the American Sleep Association, around 30 percent of adults have short-term problems with insomnia, and about 10 percent have chronic difficulties with falling and/or staying asleep. Whats more, around a third of adults report typically getting less than 7 hours of sleep per night. Given that adults need 7 to 9 hours of sleep to function best, and teenagers need even more (8 to 10 hours), its not surprising that methods for improving sleep are becoming more well-known. Better sleep can contribute to lowering stress and an improved immune system. However, achieving restful sleep can be hard if you are battling stress and anxietyâ€"it can be simply hard to quiet your mind. Many issues around sleep begin with your thinking processes at night. This is where guided sleep meditation can help. In simple terms, guided sleep meditation involves meditating before sleep, typically while you are laying in bed. While you can practice sleep meditation on your own, guided practice usually means that you listen to an audio recording that directs you through the steps of the guided sleep meditation. The goal of guided sleep meditation is to reduce the impact of worrying thoughts and tension in your body on your sleep. By learning how to shift your focus and relax your body, you will start to notice improvements in your ability to fall and stay asleep. Benefits Meditation helps you to move outside your head to be in the present moment. When you lay your head on the pillow at night, its likely that thoughts you were suppressed during the day all of a sudden start to swirl in your mind. Without any outside distractions, it can be hard to control runaway thoughts that may lead to anxiety and depression. Guided sleep meditation allows you to let go of the thoughts that are swirling and to rest your mind. In turn, this activates your parasympathetic nervous system, which helps to lower your heart rate and slow down your breathing rate. All of these changes prepare you for sleepâ€"you may even find yourself drifting off to sleep in the middle of the meditation practice. Its important to note that guided sleep meditation is not about forcing yourself to sleep. Sleep should be a side benefit of the practice, which is aimed at relaxing your body and slowing your mind. You should also notice daytime benefits of doing guided sleep practice, since getting enough sleep at night is related to how you feel during the day. The best guided sleep meditations will involve you following along with an audio guide that you can play on headphones or on a small speaker beside your bed. The goal is to not have to think too much about what you are doingâ€"rather, you let yourself be guided by the voice on the recording. Over time, you should find it easier to jump into the meditation and follow the prompts. So, dont give up too early if you find at first that you cant calm down or relax when doing the meditation. The Benefits of Meditation, and How It Impacts Your Mind and Body Steps If you wish to follow a guided meditation, find an audio recording that you can use such as the ones provided by UCLA. A typical guided sleep meditation will have you redirecting your attention away from your worried thoughts toward your body through what is called a body scan. This process involves letting go of thoughts and noticing the sensations in your body, without trying to change them. During the meditation, you will move through the various parts of your body from your head down to your toes, noticing different sensations such as heaviness, tension, tingling, temperature, and tightness. As you move through each body part, you will be instructed to gently relax and release tension by breathing into that part. You will also be directed to let your worrying thoughts (or any thoughts that you have) move past you as though they are clouds floating in the sky or leaves floating down a river. As you do this, your body will start to soften and relax and you will breathe more deeply. In addition to the body scan, guided sleep meditation can involve the following: Breathing exercise:  For example, you might be asked to count as you breathe in and out, which allows your body to slow down and sends the signal that it is time to sleep.Visualization:  Through visualization, you would imagine a peaceful scene, which would help you enter a trance-like state similar to what is induced in the process of hypnosis.Gratitude: A meditation focused on gratitude would have you practice a focus on being grateful and showing loving kindness to yourself. Research In a 2015 study published in JAMA, it was shown that mindfulness meditation was more effective for improving sleep than a sleep hygiene intervention with 49 older adults. The mindful awareness practice (MAP) intervention that was used took place over six weeks for two hours each week. It was also found that the effects on sleep carried over into daytime issues, with fatigue and depression being reduced. While this is a small initial study, it suggests that guided sleep meditation may be more effective than sleep hygiene practices alone (e.g., going to bed at a certain time each night, not using electronics before bed). Sleep Hygiene Below are some simple sleep hygiene practices that you can use in addition to guided sleep meditation: Limit the use of blue-light devices in the last hour before bed, such as cell phones and computers.Go to bed at the same time each night and force yourself to get up at the same time each morning.Purchase a special light that mimics sunlight to help you wake up at a certain time.Use dark blinds to make your room dark if you need to go to bed at odd hours.Maintain a cooler temperature in your room for better sleep.Minimize sound in your bedroom other than white noise.Drink 6 to 8 glasses of water each day.Get regular exercise such as walking or practicing yoga.Wear comfortable pajamas like cotton that are breathable.Keep a gratitude journal before bed. A Word From Verywell Guided sleep meditation can be helpful if you live with insomnia. In addition to practicing meditation, ensure that your sleep hygiene is in place to allow for restful sleep. If you still find that anxiety plagues you at night, traditional treatment such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or medication might be helpful.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Internet And The World Wide Web - 1697 Words

The Internet is a unique place where all different nationalities, social groups and age groups with different values and characteristics, meet and interact. All spheres of media are being represented on the world wide web. Some of the relations are being mirrored from those present in real life, but the internet was never the same. As with real life, not everyone on the internet is equal and there are numerous differences between the users of this medium of mass communication. Even though the inequalities are still present on the internet, they are subtler than those existing within the offline world. Almost everyone has access, but how we benefit from it depends on our status, intelligence and willingness to explore. Audience members are becoming important and active producers, being given the tools, which bring them closer to professionals. Every internet user has equal access to an online education, but an intellectually privileged group will make a more productive use of it. This can be named as equality of opportunity. The argument cannot be defined into one side. Average people can keep in touch and interact with celebrities, which would never happen outside the internet. They obey the same rules and laws imposed by the services they use, yet are not equal, as famous people are more powerful, being in charge of a huge fan base. Another important issue is a marginalization of societies excluded from the internet outreach. The inequalities and equalities should also beShow MoreRelatedThe Internet : The World Wide Web873 Words   |  4 PagesThe internet, otherwise known as the world wide web, was discovered and popularized in 1969, along with a new way of thinking. The internet has become our TV, maps, clocks, radios, and our typewriters, revolutionizing the technology world. Nowadays, people can go onto their personal computers and find anything and everything they were looking for simply at a click of a button. Although some critique the internet for mak ing our population dumb, the internet is full of available and efficient resourcesRead MoreThe Internet And The World Wide Web1490 Words   |  6 Pagesplace in society. The major one was the introduction of the internet and the World Wide Web. Around the 1950 s the first network called ARPANET was created and through research the internet was later on produced in the late 1970 s. Within two decades the internet went from being a new form of communication technology, to being, for most people a very important part of their culture and daily life. Many once held an optimism that the Internet would for example revolutionise work and office life, createRead MoreInternet And The World Wide Web990 Words   |  4 PagesInternet Privacy The term Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) are words that not only are familiar to people all over the globe but their technology is ubiquitous. Aside from the availability of the Internet, several spin-off technologies have been possible such as mobile Internet service via the mobile telephone, PDA or even â€Å"netbooks† – those subnotebooks that are small-sized, low-cost and lightweight optimized for mobile Internet access and core computing functions. No doubt, it is difficultRead MoreInternet And The World Wide Web2058 Words   |  9 Pagesuse the internet. The internet is a global communication network that allows all computers to exchange information. The internet has social benefits, it helps us in the classroom, it enhances our creativity, and it also has long term effects on our brain that actually help us. Of course, there are cons about the internet, but the bad parts are controllable. The internet changes the way we think for the better, and connects u s to people all around the world. The internet and the world wide web are veryRead MoreThe Internet And World Wide Web Essay2237 Words   |  9 PagesCerf invented the Internet and just a few years later in 1990 Tim Berners-Lee changed the world forever by inventing the beautiful and ever useful World Wide Web. Most would use the terms ‘internet’ and ‘World Wide Web’ interchangeably, however they are not the same at all. The Internet is an indescribably large network of networks while the World Wide Web is a refined way of gaining access to information on the internet. A really easy way to think about it is that the internet is connecting computersRead MoreWeb 2.0 : Internet, World Wide Web1988 Words   |  8 PagesIntroduction With the introduction of the ultimate business disruptors: Internet, World Wide Web (Web) and communication technologies have revolutionized the way business operates by improving the ways people and organizations communicate and collaborate. The concept of Web 2.0 (Business 2.0) has earned a lot of prominence in recent years by positively influencing and changing the global landscape of businesses. Web 2.0 serves as a distinctive communications platform enabling and enhancing collaborationRead MoreThe Impact Of Internet On The World Wide Web1320 Words   |  6 PagesSince its introduction, the World Wide Web has been an electronic hub for people to share thoughts anonymously with others all over the globe, however the internet has been used for activities deemed illicit. Governments have responded by limiting the access people have to certain parts of the web and monitoring people’s internet activities. There are people who believe that these governments’ actions have violated civil rights. In order to protect their anonymity, people have turned to The OnionRead MoreThe Internet And The Development Of The World Wide Web1045 Words   |  5 Pageshas changed how individuals use the Internet may access the World Wide Web. This presented paper highlights the history of the Internet and the development of the World Wide Web. It also describes the masterminds who created and developed the Web, enabled its popularization through the Web browser, and greatly improved its value by enabling web search. With the whole technology advances and changes, the differences between the first generation, Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 is also important to consider becauseRead MoreThe Impact Of Internet On The World Wide Web1767 Words   |  8 Pages Globally, the estimate for Internet users in 2016 comes to around 46.1 percent, a three percent increase from 2015 (â€Å"Internet Users in the World,† Internet Live Stats). In a world where almost half of the population has Internet most people cannot imagine their lives without constant access to news sources. In this, different platforms that involve the sharing of information include: physical newspaper, online news sources, Facebook, and other social media platforms. The sharing of news storiesRead MoreThe Impact Of Internet On The World Wide Web2353 Words   |  10 PagesSince the invention of the internet via the World Wide Web (WWW) in the 1990s, numerous communication methods among individuals have improved. Friends, families, acquaintances have the capability to interact and connect at no charge disregarding of their locations as a result of the Computer-Mediated-Communication (CMC). With the improvement of the social media platforms such as Twitter, Myspace, Fac ebook, IM, Instagram and LinkedIn, youths have become hooked to online socialization. They have been

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Rural Food Security And Nutrition - 4387 Words

The potential of crossbreeding indigenous chickens to improve rural food security and nutrition in southern Africa- a review Abstract The need to increase poultry production in southern Africa to meet the increasing protein requirement of the growing population is becoming a great concern. The quality of poultry meat and eggs produced in terms of taste, texture, flavour and leanness are of importance to consumers. Crossbreeding indigenous with exotic strains of chickens is one of the main factors that can improve food and nutrition security in southern Africa. In this paper, ways in which the quality and quantity of poultry meat and eggs can be improved for sustainable food and nutrition security in southern Africa, with emphasis on crossbreeding as a prospective food security (protein) stability technique are discussed. This paper is based on critical analysis of the literature and discusses and evaluates various crossbreeding methods of chickens that have been carried out in African countries. Comparative studies on the implementation, failures and successes of crossbreeding of chickens in African countries, such as Egypt, Botswana, Malawi and South Africa among others are reviewed. Crossbreeding, combined with selection, information dissemination, improved management and technology, is recommended for the geometric increase in poultry meat and egg production in southern Africa to improve food and nutrition security. KEYWORDS Crossbreeding, southernShow MoreRelatedThe Overlooked Area Of Poverty Essay1292 Words   |  6 Pagesenormous challenge. Then, an inevitable question arises as to whether the persistence of poverty was well-defined. FAO (2015) also have noticed that extreme poverty mainly occurs in rural areas where the majority of poor people depend on agriculture. The condition of relying on agriculture means that primary source of food and income for those poor people come from agriculture that they have made. Unfortunately, agriculture was not prioritized at the goal and target levels. Agriculture was mentionedRead MoreAero, Bar One, Kit Kat Smarties906 Words   |  4 Pagesthe care of pre-school aged children on proper nutrition to ensure healthy development. Sustainability – With a lack of sustainable resources to supplement South Africa’s growth, it is important to develop schemes which will be sustainable in the long-term without having to rely on scarce resources. Nestle has recognised that Food Security is an important quality in alleviating poverty and has addressed the issue by encouraging sustainability through food gardens, thus creating a means of income. InRead MoreThe Hunger Of Hunger And Malnutrition1429 Words   |  6 PagesFood security is said to be attained when all people are able to access enough safe and nutritious food to meet their requirements for a healthy life. However, food security is challenged by various factors across production and consumption. Food production, trade, the environmental impact of agriculture, the threat of climate change, and the factors that affect food prices are all largely global in nature – there is no single solution that any one country can enact to ensure access to affordableRead MoreThe Dangers Of Hunger And Malnutrition1432 Words   |  6 PagesPROBLEM: Food security is said to be attained when â€Å"all people are able to access enough safe and nutritious food to meet their requirements for a healthy life†. However, food security is challenged by various factors across production and consumption. Food production, trade, the environmental impact of agriculture, the threat of climate change, and the factors that affect food prices are all largely global in nature – there is no single solution that any one country can enact to ensure access toRead MoreEnvironmental Scarcity And Food Insecurity786 Words   |  4 PagesA. According to the FAO estimation, there are 840 million undernourished people in the world, and 95% of them are from developing countries. B. Environmental scarcity and food insecurity are critical factors that intensify the issue of malnutrition among people in most developing countries. C. d. Evidence health issue: - protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) refers to a form of malnutrition where there is lack of calories and protein intake. There are two kinds of PEM: the nutritional edema andRead MoreMore Than Half of the Population of Pakistan Is Food Insecured Despite Agricultural Growth.751 Words   |  4 Pagesof Pakistan is food insecured despite agricultural growth. The food security of a country is the availability of food in that country, and the people’s access to it.   It is often said, â€Å"Food insecurity anywhere, threatens peace everywhere†. The term food security reflects the desire to eliminate hunger and malnutrition. The World Food Summit in 1996 defined food security as, â€Å"when all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet the dietaryRead MoreTaking a Look at Bolivia1826 Words   |  7 Pagestopic down by talking about Bolivia’s child mortality rates and healthcare system, and the problems with healthcare access, I’m going to talk about Bolivia’s lack of access to food security and sanitation, and lastly I’m going to talk about the benefits that the popularity of the Bolivian crop quinoa has had on Bolivian nutrition. Bolivia history and poverty Since the end of the Napoleonic wars and the establishment of Bolivia’s independence from Spanish rule in 1825, Bolivia has endured a violentRead MoreMotivation Letter: Seeking a Master of Science Essay1182 Words   |  5 Pageswater was sacred because it was very scarce. That girl was me I was 8 years old and It was the first time I understood natural resources are limited and that we do not have the same water and food accessibility and accessibility. A few long time afterwards I started to be interested in the environmental and food issues and I became a Greenpeace volunteer against genetically altered organisms. Then, I read a story about the expectations in agriculture by 2050 and I realized that the planet needed solutionsRead MoreThe Beef Market And Its Impact On Beef Production1503 Words   |  7 Pagesproduction, whilst the CAP reforms have tended to reduce this support of beef production (). Owing to it, self-sufficiency accomplishes nearly 100% (European Commissi on, 2015a). Beef is one of the important foods providing multi-nutrition such as protein, vitamin and iron, though it is a sutured fat food, and cheap-priced beef can cause health inequlity on account of that consumers can easier access to and tend to purchase beef compared to much healthier productions such as vegetables or fruits which areRead MoreIndigenous Australians Experience A Much Lower Life Expectancy1326 Words   |  6 Pageslong-term disability leading to a reduced quality of life. One of the most significant contributors to the ATSI population’s health and wellbeing is their geographical location, in particular, looking at their access to health services and adequate nutrition. Access to Health Services/Facilities Access to health services and facilities is one of the largest influences on the health status of the ATSI population. Access to health services is concerned with allowing all individuals the opportunity to

What Is Critical Thinking Revisited Free Essays

What is Critical Thinking? Revisited What is Critical Thinking? The definition of critical thinking is â€Å"aiming to make wise decisions and come to correct conclusions, and not being sidetracked by temptation, emotion, greed, irrelevant considerations, stupidity, bias, or other similar things. † (Moore, 2012) Therefore, to think critically is to think about what one is going to say or do before saying or doing it. When thinking before taking any action one is basically thinking about thinking and weighing the consequences of their actions before reacting to any giving situation. We will write a custom essay sample on What Is Critical Thinking? Revisited or any similar topic only for you Order Now A perfect example of this would be that there is a couple who desperately wants to get married but after both losing their jobs they are living with the young man’s parents until they can get on their feet. The young woman secures employment and is now ready to go ahead with the wedding. The young man thinks about it and comes to the conclusion that they should wait until not only he gets employed but until they are in a home of their own and then go to City Hall to get married since a wedding takes money that they do not have. This was thinking critically because if they were to spend her wages on a wedding it is quite possible that they would still be living with his parents and not have any money saved because she at the time was the only person with an income. This would have been a consequence of not using critical thinking. I do not believe that my answer to this question this time around is much different than when I answered it in the earlier part of this course. Although my answer seems similar, my new knowledge on the subject is not. I came into this course not knowing much at all about the subject. I never thought about thinking, unsound or valid arguments, deductive reasoning or any of the things that I now have learned from taking this course. Now I am paying more attention to rhetorical devices, having valid arguments, unstated premises and everything that goes along with these things. Works Cited Moore B. N. (2012). In Critical Thinking. New York: McGraw-Hill. ———————– What is Critical Thinking Revisited 1 How to cite What Is Critical Thinking? Revisited, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

John Rawls A Theory of Justice

Table of Contents Introduction The Two Principles Conclusion Works Cited Introduction In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls deliberates on how applying logic in justice principles would solve common problems like societal structures, assigning right duties to individuals and distribution of economic and social advantages to all people in society among other pertinent issues. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead of concerning himself with the elusive notion of restoring justice in any unjust society, Rawls’ elementary duty in this book is to come up with principles of justice that would be universally applicable and used in shaping an ideal society. To some extent, Rawls borrows from Immanuel Kant’s principles of ethics that campaign for principles of nature where an individual has to do to others as he or she would expect them to do to him or her. According to Rawls, principles that would govern a society are principles chosen by individuals if they were in an ‘original position’ and they acted rationally having mutual neutrality. To expound these principles of justice, Rawls came up with two principles of justice viz. ‘Principle of Equal Liberty† and â€Å"Difference Principle.† These principles can be understood better by looking into what Rawls calls â€Å"Original Position’ and â€Å"Veil of Ignorance.† If people acted or chose situations that are ‘ideal’ for them with neutrality, then justice would become fair and this would overcome the infringements presented by theory of utilitarianism. Rawls provides a strong argument for these principles and these principles are good justice principles. The Two Principles Before putting forward his two principles of justice, Rawls begins with expounding a hypothetical ‘original position†™ that each individual should adopt. At this position, the involved parties would determine precepts of justice from behind a ‘veil of ignorance.† The ‘veil’ mentioned here would fundamentally subterfuge people from recognizing any facts about themselves hence eliminate the possibility of littering justice with personal issues. Rawls says, â€Å"no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status, nor does anyone know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence, strength, and the like. Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I shall even assume that the parties do not know their conceptions of the good or their special psychological propensities. The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance† ((Perry, Bratman Fisher 580). Therefore, in accordance with this argument, there would be no class, talents or any social distinction in the society. Rawls approaches this issue from hypothetical ‘original point’ to eliminate personal issues that litter justice principles. For long, people have made decisions and passed justice based on personal likes and dislikes without considering the other party. Rawls uses this ‘original position, to attain a neutral ground where individuals would pass judgment that they would wish to be passed on them if they were in the shoes of their subjects. This is where Rawls agrees with Kantian Ethics that are rooted on natural law of doing to others, as one would wish to be done to him or her. In other words, it is a case of one giving what he or she would expect to get back. Rawls’ original position eliminates personal interests and the eventual justice would be fair to all people in society. If justice would be decided from the ‘original position’, it would be fair for all. Rawls assumes that partie s in the ‘original position’ would agree to his two principles of justice because of the following reasons: firstly, given the fact that these parties do not know their position in society neither do they know their class, there is a probability that they would end up in any class or get any natural asset. Therefore, due to this uncertainty, these parties would try their best to ensure that the justice passed favors all people regardless of their classes. In any case, an individual in the ‘original position’ would be passing judgment for him/herself. Considering this, all individuals would pass judgments that favor themselves to ensure that if they find themselves in any class, they would be comfortable in it. Therefore, in a bid to create an ideal situation that would favor the maker of the situation, the overall justice would be fair to all. It is natural that people want the best things for themselves; therefore, they would come up with structures that are best for themselves and because they do not know where they would be in future, the overall judgment would be ‘best’ for them and ‘fair’ to everyone else. Moreover, Rawls thinks that people in the ‘original position’ would agree to his two principles because these principles gives a standard way out in distributing natural resources, economic and social advantages in societies. However, what are these principles?Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As aforementioned, Rawls puts forward two principles of justice viz. ‘Principle of Equal Liberty’ and ‘Difference Principle.’ The principle of equal liberty states that, â€Å"each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive scheme of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar scheme of liberties for others† ( Rawls 301). On the other side the Difference Principle states that, â€Å"Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that; they are to be of the greatest benefit to the least-advantaged members of society, and offices and positions must be open to everyone under conditions of fair equality of opportunity† (Rawls 303). The principle of equal liberty is egalitarian for it ensures that every person gets equal liberties. In this case, justice would prevail and societies would be structured in a way that would allow mutual understanding. This first principle is absolute in its nature, and to some extent, it echoes libertarianism whereby people will have right to speech. However, Rawls admits that on its own, this first principle may not address all issues facing the society. Therefore, he throws in the second principle and he is quick to point out that the second principle is important but for it to be realized, the first principle has to be fully applied. The second principle does not substitute the first; on contrary, it complements it by adding some specifications that the first principle may not address. The second principle as aforementioned is the Difference Principle. Rawls divides this principle into two clauses addressing the same issue of social inequalities. The first clause calls for distribution economic and social disparities in a way that, â€Å"they are to be of the greatest benefit to the least-advantaged members of society† (Rawls 303). This clause differs from the first principle by eliminating the egalitarian bit of it. It allows some people to have benefits over others; however, these benefits should be of great help to the less fortunate in society. For instance, talented people in society may have benefits over others; however, they should use these talents appropriately and channel their results back into society for the help of least talented in society. In principle, even though they have their talents, they s hould not use them for their own good.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second part of difference principle states that economic and social disparities should be distributed in a way that, â€Å"offices and positions must be open to everyone under conditions of fair equality of opportunity† (Perry, Bratman Fisher 578). This part is egalitarian just like the first principle for it calls for equality at all levels. Rawls explains these principles well by putting sense into them in a way that would compel someone to accept them. For instance, considering difference principle, Rawls provides a sustainable social structure that would eliminate injustice. The difference principle calls for formulation of projects that would allow some people to have more benefits in society than others. Some people would have more incomes, status and so forth over others. For instance, managers in blue chip companies would earn high salaries than street cleaners. This is logical and acceptable. People with talents in society would be allowed to pursue their tale nts and have higher social status than others. Rawls is fine with all these possibilities. Nevertheless, such disparities would only be allowed under certain controlled conditions that would allow better lives for the least advantaged people in society. Rawls puts forward two conditions; one, these disparities would be allowed if their outcome have direct or indirect positive effects in empowering the least advantaged in society. For instance, if paying a blue chip company manager millions of dollars would benefit the least advantaged, then so be it. As long as the outcome of such disparity is improving livelihood of the poor and less fortunate in society, then it is allowed. Secondly, Rawls indicates that as long as the procedure of accessing high posts in society is free and fair, void of irrelevant criteria and discrimination, then it is all right. Moreover, the difference principle addresses other ethical theories like the socialist idea, which calls for distribution of respons ibilities and benefits based on ability and need respectively. In essence, the least advantaged people in society have more needs whilst those greatly advantaged have the highest responsibilities. This boils down to merit where skills are rewarded and at this point, Rawls’ principles become good principles of justice. The society has for long promoted courses that would benefit only those who are well off in society leaving the least disadvantaged to groan under poverty and misery. However, Rawls first clause of the second principle of justice eliminates this problem. People should only change economic and social institutions if only they will benefit all people in society not the well off alone. For instance, there would be a proposal that seeks to allow erection of a nuclear plant in a family neighborhood whereby, the families around the nuclear plant would not benefit; however, the plant would provide well-paying jobs to professionals who are already well off. Under, Raw ls’ principles, this nuclear plant would not come to be; however, in contemporary society, this plant would be introduced regardless of the plight of the neighboring families. This is unfair; it is injustice. In the wake of these facts, Rawls’ principles of justice stand out as a better way out of the quagmire that societies have plunged into. Rawls’ principles are even better than utilitarianism. According to Perry, Bratman, and Fisher, utilitarianism states that as long as actions promote felicity, they qualify as ‘good’ actions (589). However, Rawls offers a better approach in addressing pleasure and happiness. Utilitarianism has many infringements that violate basic human rights; however, Rawls’ principles allows for equality and at the same time allow individuals to do what they love doing hence become happy. The difference between the two is what takes precedence over what. While in utilitarianism, the quest to derive felicity and plea sure takes precedence over human rights, Rawls’ principles are the exact opposite. Equality should prevail and this is why Rawls starts by taking people back to the ‘original position.’ After ensuring that equality prevails, Rawls then incorporates the issue of deriving happiness. In essence, if what an individual is doing does not benefit other people in society, it is wrong whether it brings happiness or not. Rawls’ principles are good because if societies are structured according to his suggestions, then at least everyone will be happy in society because justice would be fair for every body. Otherwise, without adopting these principles, societies would continue to suffer social injustices because social classes and positions have allowed people to pass biased judgments that benefit them alone. Conclusion Rawls comes out clearly in his principles of Justice. He starts by referring people to make judgments from an ‘original position’ covered with a ‘veil of ignorance.’ This veil covers people from acknowledging their interests, status, or positions in society. At this point, people would make judgments and decisions that are fair to everyone because these decision makers do not know where they would belong in future; therefore, they would pass judgments that are ‘best’ for themselves thus making the judgments fair to everyone. Rawls then gives his two principles. The first one is an egalitarian principle calling for equal distribution of liberties to all people in society. This provision eliminates many injustices while the second principle furnishes what the first does not address adequately. This second principle allows classes in society only if the outcome of such classes would be for the benefit of the least advantaged in society. Rawls provides a strong argument for these principles and these principles are good justice principles because they address pertinent issues of injustice in s ociety. They are better than utilitarianism for their basic objective is upholding human rights as opposed to utilitarianism’s happiness. Works Cited Perry, John, Bratman, Michael, Fisher, Martin. â€Å"Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings.† New York; Oxford University Press, 2006. Rawls, John. â€Å"A Theory of Justice.† Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971. This essay on John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice was written and submitted by user Daisy Yates to help you with your own studies. 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